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0.2  ASHA CEUs

The Penetration-Aspiration Scale: Standardizing Airway Protection Judgments From MBS Studies #e298


Presenter: James L. Coyle, PhD, CCC-SLP, BCS-S, ASHA Fellow

Application of the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS).


"I like that this course went through how the PAS was created and reason for it. We use PAS in our MBSS notes, but no one has had any further education on it, so I wasn't sure if we were even using it correctly!"

– M.G., prior course participant

The penetration-aspiration scale was published more than 25 years ago and has been in widespread use in both clinical and research settings. It was designed to limit the seemingly infinite ways of describing airway compromise events on MBS/VFSS videos into a comprehensive and manageable set of descriptors, to provide an ordinal method of rating severity of airway protection impairment, and to help establish the answer to "what is normal airway protection" for healthy individuals.

This course presents the motivation and rationale behind development of the PA Scale. It overviews anatomic landmarks denoting separation between critical airway subdivisions of the pharynx, larynx and trachea, and provides examples of each PAS score in MBS/VFS images. Learn which PAS scores are typically occurring, especially for older individuals. Common judgment errors and methods of resolving uncertainties in score selection will be discussed, along with a handy decision-making algorithm for using the PAS. Course focus is the adult population.

Course is offered for 0.2 ASHA CEUs – 2 contact hours.

Course Overview & Run Time

Course Overview – Run Time 02:11:13

  • Accurately use the Penetration-Aspiration Scale on all swallows of a videofluoroscopic swallowing study.
  • Identify which PAS scores are typically occurring, especially for older individuals.
  • Apply PAS scores in examination interpretation.
  • Apply PAS results in treatment planning.
  • Describe how NOT to use PAS scores.

Stop and re-start the course at any point. Learners retain access to course content after completion for ongoing reference and review.

"I liked how specific course was and how immediately the information/methods could be utilized. I liked that it went into detail with all the anatomy which is absolutely necessary to accurately score for the PA scale."

– K.L., prior course participant

The content of this online CE course does not focus exclusively on any specific proprietary product or service. Presenter financial and non-financial disclosures may be found in the Presenter & Disclosures area.

Course Format

Video PowerPoint presentation with author narration & downloadable handout. Stop and re-start the course at any point. Learners retain access to course content after completion for ongoing reference and review.

Reviews

"I liked the videos showing what each score would look like." L.D. (Jan. 2023)

"Course was extremely thorough and very well laid out. I liked the review of the anatomy to discuss the differences between deep laryngeal penetration and aspiration." A.R. (Jan. 2023)

"Dr. Coyle was very organized, had a nice calm presentation and with good examples." P.M. (Jan. 2023)

"I liked the anatomical structures (refresher) during MBSS. Appropriate use of PAS. Presented well." R.J. (Jan. 2023)

"Excellent speaker; enjoyable to listen to. Anatomical landmarks used in scoring the PAS were beneficial. I liked the pace of the presentation; speaker was very thorough." S.D. (Jan. 2023)

"I have been waiting for this course since I started doing videofluoroscopy!" A.S. (Jan. 2023)

"Loved the critical thinking and how to use PAS scale scores in clinical practice versus research. Anything that Dr. Coyle presents is wonderful. He is a talented speaker and makes complex information digestible." J.K. (Jan. 2023)

"Learning the development and functional use of the scale was beneficial. I find all of James Coyle's courses to be practical and applicable to daily practice and interventions." A.P. (Jan. 2023)

"Learning proper way to use the tool, nuances to ensure accuracy of scoring. Speaker was knowledgeable and engaging." K.S. (Dec. 2022)

"Anatomy review was beneficial. I liked the video examples and explanations." H.B. (Dec. 2022)

"The discussion of what the borders are to count the bolus as being penetrated or aspirated was beneficial. I liked the sample narrative to show how the scores should be summarized. I liked how specific course was and how immediately the information/methods could be utilized. I liked that it went into detail with all the anatomy which is absolutely necessary to accurately score for the PA scale." K.L. (Dec. 2022)

"Good clarity of information presented." D.D. (Dec. 2022)

"The whole thing: this was a very clear, well-organized course. We don't use the scale at my place of work, but it is occasionally used in hospital charts I have seen and this is an excellent explanation of the chart. I loved the video examples of each score, and "woahed" out loud to see the number 6 video example." C.K. (Dec. 2022)

"I liked the refresher on the anatomy portions! I like that this course went through how the PAS was created and reason for it. We use PAS in our MBSS notes, but no one has had any further education on it, so I wasn't sure if we were even using it correctly!" M.G. (Dec. 2022)

Course Objectives

  1. Accurately use the Penetration-Aspiration Scale on all swallows of a VFSS.
  2. Identify what PAS scores are typically occurring, especially for older individuals.
  3. Apply PAS scores in examination interpretation.
  4. Apply PAS results in treatment planning and repeat baselines to measure change.
  5. Describe how NOT to use PAS scores.

Presenter & Disclosures

James L. Coyle, PhD, CCC-SLP, BCS-S, ASHA Fellow, is a Professor in the Department of Communication Science and Disorders at the University of Pittsburgh where he teaches courses in the Master's Program in Speech-Language Pathology and courses in the SLP Clinical Doctorate Program. He also supervises undergraduate and graduate student dysphagia research. Dr. Coyle evaluates patients and teaches clinical practicum at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center hospitals and is funded by the NIH to investigate the use of technology and signal processing in the screening and treatment of dysphagia. Other research includes the effects of exercise in relating dysphagia caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and investigation of brain networks related to swallowing function. He's a Fellow of ASHA and received the University of Pittsburgh Chancellor's Distinguished Teaching Award in 2016.

Speaker Disclosures:

Financial — James Coyle is a presenter of CE seminars and online CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives speaking fees and royalties.

Nonfinancial — James Coyle has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.

Intended Audience/Accreditation

asha ce approved provider

This program is offered for 0.2 ASHA CEUs (Intermediate Level; Professional Area).

Intended Audience

  • SLP

ASHA CEUs: NSS online courses are registered with ASHA and are offered for ASHA CEUs. The number of ASHA CEUs is noted above. Note that 0.1 ASHA CEU = 1 contact hour = equals 1 CEE.

ASHA CE Registry: During the enrollment process, if you select to receive ASHA credit for this course and if you provide your ASHA number, NSS will automatically submit your CEU information to the ASHA CE Registry after successful course completion (80% on post test). This submission happens once per month, during the first week of the month. For example, if you complete your course on November 7th, NSS will submit all November online course CEUs to ASHA during the first week of December. When ASHA inputs the information into their database, they will mark the course as completed on the last day of the month in which it was completed, so November 30th using this example. The certificate of completion available for you to print immediately, however, will reflect the actual completion date, November 7th in this example. Due to ASHA processing procedures please allow 2-3 weeks, from the submission date, for the course to appear on your ASHA transcript.

ASHA CEUs: Attendees must meet at least one of the following conditions in order to be eligible to earn ASHA CEUs:

  • Current ASHA Member
  • ASHA Certificate of Clinical Competence (CCC) Holder
  • Licensed by a state or provincial regulatory agency to practice speech-language pathology (SLP) or audiology
  • Credentialed by a state regulatory agency to practice SLP or audiology
  • Credentialed by a national regulatory agency to practice SLP or audiology
  • Engaged in a Clinical Fellowship under the supervision of an individual with their ASHA CCC
  • Currently enrolled in a masters or doctoral program in SLP or audiology

If an attendee is not an ASHA member or CCC holder but meets any of the above criteria, they may inform the ASHA CE Registry of their eligibility by visiting this site.

Licensing Boards: Most state licensing boards DO accept CEUs earned online (usually classified as home-study credits). Some state boards do, however, place a limit to the number of credits that can be earned via home study/online courses. For the most current information, we suggest that you contact your licensing board or agency to verify acceptance policies and/or any credit limits related to home-study courses prior to registering for this course.

Additional accrediting agencies by which Northern Speech is an approved CE provider:

  • California: NSS is approved as a provider of continuing education by the California Speech-Language Pathology & Audiology Board. Provider #PDP4. Online CEU limits may apply; please contact SLPAHADB for current online CEU acceptance policies.
  • Iowa: NSS is approved as a provider of continuing education by the Iowa Board of Speech Pathology and Audiology Examiners. Provider #169.
  • Kansas: NSS is approved as a provider of continuing education by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment. Provider #LTS-S0005.

Frequently Asked Questions

Customer Support: Please phone 888.337.3866 or email info@northernspeech.com.

Course Completion Timeframe:

You have unlimited time to complete our online courses. You may log off and log on as often as you’d like to in order to complete all sections of a course.

However, completion dates are based on Eastern Standard Time. Therefore, if you need your CEUs by a certain date, be sure to complete the course test before 11:59pm EST on that date. For example, if you need CEUs before January 1st, you will need to complete the course test before 11:59pm EST on December 31st.

Content Access:

Access to course materials and content does not expire, even after completing the post test. You may continue to review course material by logging into your NSS account, clicking the My Online Courses tab, and then viewing your desired course.

Certificate of Completion:

On successful completion of the post test (80%), a certificate will be immediately available for download and/or printing. This certificate will include your name, date of completion (based on Eastern Time Zone, USA/Canada), and number of contact hours (CEUs / CEEs). Please note that CEUs are awarded on the date of successful test completion, not the date of course enrollment. Please ensure that you successfully complete the post test prior to any licensure renewal dates.

ASHA CE Registry Submission:

During the enrollment process, if you select to receive ASHA credit for this course and if you provide your ASHA number, NSS will automatically submit your CEU information to the ASHA CE Registry after successful course completion (80% on post test). This submission happens once per month, during the first week of the month. For example, if you complete your course on November 7th, NSS will submit all November online course CEUs to ASHA during the first week of December. When ASHA inputs the information into their database, they will mark the course as completed on the last day of the month in which it was completed, so November 30th using this example. The certificate of completion available for you to print immediately, however, will reflect the actual completion date, November 7th in this example. Due to ASHA processing procedures please allow 2-3 weeks, from the submission date, for the course to appear on your ASHA transcript.

Purchase Orders:

Purchase orders are currently not accepted for online orders, if you wish to submit a purchase order please do so at info@northernspeech.com or fax to 888-696-9655.

What is an Online Course?

Our Online Courses consist of video, audio, and/or text content and are offered for ASHA CEUs. Unlike a webinar, which requires participants to be logged on and at a computer at specific times, our Online Courses are available to you at any time, from any device, via your NorthernSpeech.com online account. You may work at your own pace and start and stop your course as you wish. Your course will conclude with a short post test. On successful completion of the post test (>80%), a printable certificate of completion is presented to you.

Receiving CEUs:

Northern Speech is an ASHA CE Provider and our online courses are registered with ASHA and offered for ASHA CEUs. Please note that successful completion of the online post test is required prior to the awarding of CEUs. Please contact your state licensing board for acceptance policies related to CEUs earned online. Please note that courses offered for university students are not applicable for CEUs.

Registering for an online course:

You may browse all online courses by clicking the Continuing Education tab above, then Online Courses. Once you find a course, click Enroll Now, and you will be asked to either log into your existing Northern Speech account or create a new online account. Once you’ve entered your account information and provided your credit card payment, your course will be immediately available to you.

Accessing your purchased course or returning to a purchased course:

You will be able to access your online course by logging into your Northern Speech account and then clicking the My Online Courses tab on your profile screen. Click the course you would like to start or to resume. From there, proceed through the course sections until you are ready to complete the post test. You do not have to complete your course all at once. You may log on and off as you wish.

Testing requirements:

Each online course concludes with a post test consisting of multiple choice or true & false questions. Scores of 80% or greater are required for successful course completion and awarding of CEUs. You may revisit course materials and retest as needed to achieve a passing score.

Number of CEUs offered:

We offer courses from 1 to 21 contact hours. Each course will note the number of CEUs offered. Please note that 0.1 CEU = 1 contact hour = 1 CEE.

State licensing boards and online CEUs:

NSS is an ASHA CE Provider and most state licensing boards DO accept ASHA CEUs earned online (usually classified as home-study credits). Some boards do, however, place a limit to the number of CEUs that can be earned via home study/online courses. For the most current information, we suggest that you contact your licensing board or agency to verify acceptance policies and/or any CEU limits related to home-study courses prior to enrolling in an online course.

Course formats:

Our course formats include: text, audio, video, and PowerPoint with author narration. Each course will note the format on the course description page. Most courses include closed captioning.

Course handouts:

Most of our online courses provide a link to download the accompanying handout as a PDF file. 

Group discounts:

Groups of 3 or more are eligible for a 20% discount on each registration on most of our online courses. To receive this discount, registrations need to be processed together via the "Group Rates" tab on the Online Course of your choice.

Computer requirements:

For our online courses to function best, we recommend that you update your computer to include the newest version of your Internet browser (Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Edge, Internet Explorer, etc.) and newest version of your computer's operating system. Also a high-speed Internet connection is recommended (cable or DSL). Speakers or headphones will be required for many of our courses as many contain audio components.

Course Cancellation Policy:

A purchased online course can be exchanged, refunded, or transferred to another individual if contact is made with NSS (via phone or email) within 30 days of purchase and the course materials have not been viewed or downloaded. 

Special Needs:

Please click here for any special needs requests, and we will do our best to accommodate them. 

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