Presenters: multiple experts
Stop and re-start the course at any point. Learners retain access to course content after completion for ongoing reference and review.
This treatment-focused course presents perspectives on the evolution of dysphagia practice. Twelve expert clinicians in the field of dysphagia examine how speech-language pathologists were managing patients when dysphagia was added to ASHA's scope of practice, how challenges along the way developed into evidence-based interventions, and what best practice looks like today. Looking forward, the discussion includes new concepts in the management of dysphagia.
Offered for 2.0 ASHA CEUs – 20 Contact Hours.
– K.I., prior course participant
– J.R., prior course participant
– R.R., prior course participant
The content of this online CE course does not focus exclusively on any specific proprietary product or service. Presenter financial and non-financial disclosures may be found in the Presenter & Disclosures area.
Video PowerPoint presentation with author narration & downloadable handout. Stop and re-start the course at any point. Learners retain access to course content after completion for ongoing reference and review.
"I liked Jay Rosenbek’s session. And the thoroughness of this course." S.A. (Jan. 2023)
"Can't pick just one topic - all were beneficial. I liked Dr. Coyle's presentation on differentiation between dysphagia acquired pneumonia and other forms of pneumonia. And to be totally honest, 2.0 CEUs rolled up into one course! (THANK YOU!)" R.K. (Dec. 2022)
"I feel this course was well articulated by all speakers. A lot of examples were provided that were relevant to the topic and very informative. It was a great refresher on tracheostomy care and vent weaning protocols." L.S. (Dec. 2022)
"Treatment techniques were beneficial. I liked the different areas of expertise shared." L.P. (Dec. 2022)
"I liked the multiple topics and the devices to manage sensory loss." Y.W. (Dec. 2022)
"The course was organized and detailed. I liked the section on head and neck cancer." C.G. (Dec. 2022)
"Aspiration, modified diets, oral motor activities were beneficial. Everything about neurology and new treatments were beneficial. I really loved the pediatric dysphagia area." A.P. (Nov. 2022)
"I liked the variety and comprehensiveness of the dysphagia topics. All the presentations provided valuable & useful information, enhancing & updating present knowledge. The topic of Hydration Management was very appreciated, due to its relative importance & thorough details." M.B. (Nov. 2022)
"Excellent information. Pertinent to patient contact and therapy. The speakers are knowledgeable and know their content. I liked specifically the Head and Neck, Trach/Vent, and Hydration Management lectures." D.C. (Nov. 2022)
"Course was easy to follow and to understand. I liked the therapy on esophageal phase. And how each treatment had its own section." S.H. (Oct. 2022)
"I liked the information on how the esophagus is involved in swallowing." C.R. (Oct. 2022)
"I liked everything about this course." J.S. (Aug. 2022)
"The information regarding head and neck cancer and discussion about feeding tubes were good." F.S. (Aug. 2022)
"The course covers different perspectives relating to dysphagia management." C.S. (Aug. 2022)
"I liked the broad range of topics." C.D. (Aug. 2022)
"Multiple lecturers, multiple topics, felt like I was at a conference. Very good info for our daily practice." K.I. (July 2022)
"I liked the diversity in topics, especially the DIEZ therapy with Dr. Gross." B.C. (July 2022)
"Each topic/discussion in this course was very informative and beneficial. Since I am an acute care SLP, the information from the Modified Diets and Feeding Tubes course by Paula Sullivan will certainly be used in my daily practice. I really liked that this course covered a wide range of topics in dysphagia, and that these topics were presented by a variety of clinicians." L.C. (July 2022)
"I thought it was interesting that many of the patients that are diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia do not necessarily have dysphagia. I liked that course was broken up into sections with different professionals speaking on their expertise." E.C. (June 2022)
"I enjoyed the discussion on hydration. All topics were interesting." A.J. (June 2022)
"The esophageal swallow content was beneficial." I.D. (May 2022)
"I liked the session on hydration and Paula Sullivan's session on working with pt's and families to make feeding decisions." L.M. (May 2022)
"Dr. Coyle's lecture on aspiration pneumonia provided great information relevant to acute care practices. I liked the large number of speakers and variety of topics." H.H. (May 2022)
"Multiple, very qualified speakers with a wide area of expertise." E.C. (May 2022)
"The course was well organized. The head and neck, respiration, and hydration sections are most relevant to my practice." L.A. (Feb. 2022)
"I liked the review of compensatory maneuvers and hydration principles. And the flexibility of taking the course online and on demand." R.G. (Jan. 2022)
"It covered a variety of topics and patient populations related to dysphagia, including hydration management." N.W. (Jan. 2022)
"I liked that there was a variety of aspects covered. I found most all of the content to be very beneficial as I work in skilled nursing facilities. I loved that there was a section in this presentation about the integrative approaches." L.D. (Dec. 2021)
"I loved the course on respiration and esophageal function. This was fascinating and makes me want to consider effects of respiration more carefully when assessing patients in acute care. I liked the content and flexibility of being able to work on it." M.T. (Dec. 2021)
"I liked the variety of dysphagia topics and speakers." J.W. (Dec. 2021)
"I liked that the topics are broken down into sessions and the information is very detailed." F.P. (Dec. 2021)
"I feel more informed because of section 3 esophageal dysphagia. I'm increasingly seeing more patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia. The course was in small chunks, easy to do little bits at a time as I had opportunities." D.O. (Nov. 2021)
"Adding cognitive treatment to facilitate carryover for dysphagia strategies will be beneficial for my daily practice. I liked the easy to follow and interesting topics/presenters." D.L. (Nov. 2021)
"I really enjoyed the session on hydration." M.D. (Sept. 2021)
"Segment on hydration, segment on increased patient compliance/adherence, treatment modalities/studies was very good." M.S. (Sept. 2021)
“There was something from every section that I found useful to my practice. I enjoyed listening to it and learning from it at my own pace and on my own time.” H.B. (Aug. 2021)
"All of it was beneficial! Fantastic course! It has so much valuable information!! One of the best courses!" B.C. (Jun. 2021)
"The course is flexible and can be completed around my busy schedule. I also liked that I can continue to access the materials from the course to reference as I need them. Swallowing treatment for people with neurodegenerative diseases will be beneficial for my daily practice." J.R. (Jun. 2021)
“The information about esophageal dysphagia and managing trach/vent patients was very helpful. I liked that the speakers have had lengthy careers, reviewed swallowing treatment history, and demonstrated how far our profession has come in dysphagia treatment.” R.R. (Jun. 2021)
"It was beneficial to go over esophageal dysphagia, as this is a topic that is discussed with our patients frequently." H.S. (May 2021)
"I felt that as a whole, the topics were relevant and helpful to my daily work. I thought the Kathy Panther presentation about hydration was excellent and thought provoking and I also felt the vents/trach presentation gave great information. I felt all of the presentations gave helpful, practical information that I can use in my work." G.S. (Apr. 2021)
“I learned a lot of things that I didn't know before. I wouldn’t think that neck cancer can be combined with dysphagia.” I.M. (Mar. 2021)
"I appreciated going over the topics on esophageal dysphagia, respiratory and swallow relationships, and how to assist older adults to prevent dehydration issues. I liked the handouts and the articles referenced throughout the course to refer to for more information." V.M. (Mar. 2021)
A score of 80% or better must be received on the post test in order to receive a certificate of completion.
Jennifer is the author of 5 nationally recognized books on dementia including the silver-medal winning Creative Connections in Dementia Care and I Care, the gold-medal winning work that also received a 5-star rating as a Reader Favorite. Jennifer is widely known for her revolutionary work in the Spaced Retrieval memory intervention, pioneering this area of study and publishing 2 books on the subject.
Financial — Jennifer Brush is a presenter of online CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Financial — Jennifer Brush is the author of "Meal Time Matters" and "Meal Time Matters at Home"; receives royalties.
Financial — Jennifer Brush is the author of "A Therapy Technique for Improving Memory: Spaced Retrieval" and "Environment and Communication Assessment Toolkit"; receives royalties.
Financial — Jennifer Brush is an editor and author for IDEAS Institute; receives consulting fees.
Financial — Jennifer Brush is the owner of Brush Development; ownership interests.
Nonfinancial — Jennifer Brush has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Financial — James Coyle is a presenter of CE seminars and online CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives speaking fees and royalties.
Nonfinancial — James Coyle has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Roxann Diez Gross, PhD, CCC-SLP, ASHA Fellow, is a leading expert, accomplished researcher, and frequently invited national and international lecturer. Her areas of expertise include swallowing function, esophageal dysphagia, and management of patients with tracheostomy tubes and speaking valves.
Currently, Roxann is Director of Research at The Children's Institute in Pittsburgh, PA. Prior to this position, she was Director of the Swallowing Disorders Center at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology in the School of Medicine. She is now an adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Communication Science and Disorders at the University of Pittsburgh.
Roxann has published several scientific papers and clinical book chapters. Her primary area of research examines interactions between breathing and swallowing in neurologic and respiratory disease. Over the past 7 years, Roxann has expanded her clinical work and research to include non-pathologic forms of esophageal dysphagia.
Financial — Roxann Diez Gross is a presenter of online CEU courses by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Financial — Roxann Diez Gross is the author of "Quick Pocket Reference for Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Valves" published by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Nonfinancial — Roxann Diez Gross has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Karen Dikeman, MA, CCC-SLP, BRS-S, is a specialist in swallowing and swallowing disorders and is currently AVP of Rehabilitation Services at the Silvercrest Center for Rehabilitation and Nursing in Briarwood, NY. She is a coauthor of "Communication and Swallowing Management of the Tracheostomized and Ventilator Dependent Adult" as well as peer-reviewed articles and book chapters. She has led both national and international seminars, and participated in several national clinical trials, including Protocol 201, the use of the Blom speaking tracheotomy tube, and currently, the MOLST protocol.
Financial Disclosure — Karen Dikeman is a presenter of CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Financial Disclosure — Karen Dikeman is the author of "Communication and Swallowing Management of Tracheostomized and Ventilator-Dependent Adults, 2nd edition"; receives royalties.
Nonfinancial Disclosure — Karen Dikeman has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Jacqueline A. Hind, MS, CCC-SLP, BCS-S, is an accomplished clinician, researcher, and inventor. Her work in adult dysphagia has been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals and she was a regional principal investigator for the largest NIH-funded, randomized clinical trial in swallowing. Ms. Hind is an Outreach Program Manager and Coordinator of the Swallowing Speech And Dining Enhancement Program (SSWAL-ADE) at the University of Wisconsin and at the Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center within the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital in Madison, WI.
Financial — Jacqueline Hind is a presenter of online CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Nonfinancial — Jacqueline Hind has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Marta Kazandjian, MA, CCC-SLP, BCS-S, is Director of Speech Pathology and Swallowing at both the Silvercrest Center for Nursing and Rehabilitation and the multidisciplinary Center for Digestive Diseases and Swallowing Disorders at New York Presbyterian/Queens. As a certified integrative health coach, Marta is also Senior Director in her post-acute affiliation in charge of patient experience and clinical initiatives. She is the co-author of “Communication and Swallowing Management of Tracheostomized and Ventilator Dependent Adults” as well as many peer-reviewed articles and book chapters. She is an invited national and international speaker and has extensive experience working with complex medically fragile populations in acute, sub-acute and long term care settings. Marta specializes in swallowing and severe communication impairment in these patient populations and has participated in funded clinical research trials. Marta has a particular interest in palliative and end of life care and has shared her expertise in communication to facilitate patient-centered care with this population.
Financial Disclosure — Marta Kazandjian is a presenter of CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Financial Disclosure — Marta Kazandjian is the author of "Communication and Swallowing Management of Tracheostomized and Ventilator-Dependent Adults, 2nd edition"; receives royalties.
Nonfinancial Disclosure — Marta Kazandjian has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Cathy L. Lazarus, PhD, CCC-SLP, BCS-S, has conducted research and lectured internationally for over 40 years on swallowing disorders and quality of life in the head & neck cancer population. She is an ASHA Fellow.
Financial — Cathy Lazarus is presenter of online CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Nonfinancial — Cathy Lazarus has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Jan S. Lewin, PhD, CCC-SLP, BCS-S, is a Professor in the Head and Neck Surgery Department, and Section Chief of Speech Pathology and Audiology at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. Dr. Lewin received her undergraduate and graduate degrees from the University of Michigan and her Ph.D. from Michigan State University. She is a recognized authority on speech and swallowing outcomes in oncology patients. Dr. Lewin is a regularly invited faculty participant to national and international cancer survivorship programs and public education networks. She has authored over 100 journal articles, 20 book chapters, among other publications, on the topic of functional restoration of speech and swallowing. Under her direction, the Speech Pathology and Audiology program at M.D. Anderson is recognized as the premier program for functional rehabilitation of oncology patients.
Financial — Jan Lewin is a presenter of online CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives royalty payments.
Nonfinancial — Jan Lewin has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Christy Ludlow, PhD, CCC-SLP, (Retired) is one of the premier researchers in the field of Speech-Language Pathology. Dr. Ludlow specializes in voice and swallowing neurophysiology and disorders and is a frequently invited international lecturer on the diagnosis and management of voice and swallowing disorders. Dr. Ludlow's research has been published in numerous leading peer-reviewed journals covering neuroimaging, neurophysiology, dysphagia and Speech Pathology, among others.
Dr. Ludlow recently retired as Professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at James Madison University in Virginia where she taught courses on voice, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and clinical trials. She also developed the Laboratory on Neural Bases of Communication and Swallowing and currently is active in research focusing on the role of sensory feedback in neural control for voice, speech, and swallowing; the use of sensory enhancement during motor training for recovery from dysphagia; and the diagnosis and assessment of spasmodic dysphonia.
Financial — Christy Ludlow is a presenter of online CE courses sponsored Northern Speech Services; receives a royalty.
Financial — Christy Ludlow serves as a research consultant for StimSwal; receives payment.
Financial — Christy Ludlow authors books on building a research career and measuring voice, speech and swallowing for Plural Publishing, Inc.; receives a royalty.
Nonfinancial — Christy Ludlow has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Kathy Panther, MS, CCC-SLP, CBIST, spent her career at Frazier Rehab Institute in Louisville, Kentucky. Kathy was a member of the team at Frazier that hatched the earliest of the free water protocols, the Frazier Water Protocol (FWP). Kathy and team, over more than three decades, managed thousands of patients with dysphagia on the FWP. Beyond her clinical work, Kathy became a leader at Frazier Rehab serving as the Inpatient Rehab Director and the Director of the Brain Injury Program. Kathy played a unique role in formally facilitating culture shaping training with colleagues in her organization while navigating health care mergers and every-present operational changes. Kathy greatly enjoyed educating health care professionals on acquired brain injury, oral care practice, hydration management, and implementing free water protocols.
Financial — Kathy Panther is presenter of online CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Nonfinancial — Kathy Panther has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
John (Jay) Rosenbek, PhD, CCC-SLP, BC-NCD, is a Professor in the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences at the University of Florida at Gainesville. His clinical specialties include neurologic abnormalities of language, speech, and swallowing. He is board certified in the area of neurogenic communication disorders. His research has concentrated on developing behavioral treatments and measures for determining their effectiveness. He is presently investigating treatments for deficits in emotional communication and for swallowing disorders following neurologic disease. Dr. Rosenbek is an ASHA Fellow and received both the Honors of ASHA and the Kleffner Career Clinical Award for 25 years of outstanding clinical service.
Financial — Jay Rosenbek is a presenter of CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Nonfinancial — Jay Rosenbek has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
Paula A. Sullivan, MS, CCC-SLP, BCS-S, currently is a Senior Speech-Language Pathologist in the Department of Neurology/Speech Section, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System in Gainesville, FL. Paula's clinical expertise and research are focused on swallowing disorders in head and neck cancer and at end-of-life. She has been affiliated with numerous comprehensive cancer centers, including H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, Sylvester Cancer Center, Miami, FL, and the University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. Paula also has participated as part of numerous clinical research trials in swallowing.
Paula served as a co-regional primary investigator for the largest controlled, randomized research trial in oropharyngeal dysphagia funded by the National Institutes of Health (Protocol 201). Protocol 201 examined the effectiveness of chin down and thickened liquids in individuals with dementia and Parkinson's disease both with and without dementia. Additionally, Paula has published numerous articles, book chapters, and co-authored books, including Swallowing Intervention in Oncology and the Easy-To-Swallow, Easy-To-Chew Cookbook. She also has co-authored multiple national guidelines, directives, and policies relating to oropharyngeal swallowing disorders for both the Veterans Health Administration and the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). She is a board recognized specialist in swallowing and swallowing disorders. Paula is an ASHA Fellow and former coordinator of ASHA's Division 13, Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders. She was named "2013 Clinician of the Year" by the Association of Veterans Affairs Speech-Language Pathologists.
Financial — Paula Sullivan is a coauthor of the text, "Easy-To-Swallow; Easy-To-Chew Cookbook"; receives royalty payments.
Financial — Paula Sullivan is a presenter of online CE courses sponsored by Northern Speech Services; receives royalties.
Nonfinancial — Paula Sullivan has no relevant nonfinancial relationships to disclose.
This program is offered for 2.0 ASHA CEUs (Intermediate Level; Professional Area).
ASHA CEUs: NSS online courses are registered with ASHA and are offered for ASHA CEUs. The number of ASHA CEUs is noted above. Note that 0.1 ASHA CEU = 1 contact hour = equals 1 CEE.
ASHA CE Registry: During the enrollment process, if you select to receive ASHA credit for this course and if you provide your ASHA number, NSS will automatically submit your CEU information to the ASHA CE Registry after successful course completion (80% on post test). This submission happens once per month, during the first week of the month. For example, if you complete your course on November 7th, NSS will submit all November online course CEUs to ASHA during the first week of December. When ASHA inputs the information into their database, they will mark the course as completed on the last day of the month in which it was completed, so November 30th using this example. The certificate of completion available for you to print immediately, however, will reflect the actual completion date, November 7th in this example. Due to ASHA processing procedures please allow 2-3 weeks, from the submission date, for the course to appear on your ASHA transcript.
ASHA CEUs: Attendees must meet at least one of the following conditions in order to be eligible to earn ASHA CEUs:
If an attendee is not an ASHA member or CCC holder but meets any of the above criteria, they may inform the ASHA CE Registry of their eligibility by visiting this site.
Licensing Boards: Most state licensing boards DO accept CEUs earned online (usually classified as home-study credits). Some state boards do, however, place a limit to the number of credits that can be earned via home study/online courses. For the most current information, we suggest that you contact your licensing board or agency to verify acceptance policies and/or any credit limits related to home-study courses prior to registering for this course.
Additional accrediting agencies by which Northern Speech is an approved CE provider:
Course Completion Timeframe:
You have unlimited time to complete our online courses. You may log off and log on as often as you’d like to in order to complete all sections of a course.
However, completion dates are based on Eastern Standard Time. Therefore, if you need your CEUs by a certain date, be sure to complete the course test before 11:59pm EST on that date. For example, if you need CEUs before January 1st, you will need to complete the course test before 11:59pm EST on December 31st.
Access to course materials and content does not expire, even after completing the post test. You may continue to review course material by logging into your NSS account, clicking the My Online Courses tab, and then viewing your desired course.
Certificate of Completion:
On successful completion of the post test (80%), a certificate will be immediately available for download and/or printing. This certificate will include your name, date of completion (based on Eastern Time Zone, USA/Canada), and number of contact hours (CEUs / CEEs). Please note that CEUs are awarded on the date of successful test completion, not the date of course enrollment. Please ensure that you successfully complete the post test prior to any licensure renewal dates.
ASHA CE Registry Submission:
During the enrollment process, if you select to receive ASHA credit for this course and if you provide your ASHA number, NSS will automatically submit your CEU information to the ASHA CE Registry after successful course completion (80% on post test). This submission happens once per month, during the first week of the month. For example, if you complete your course on November 7th, NSS will submit all November online course CEUs to ASHA during the first week of December. When ASHA inputs the information into their database, they will mark the course as completed on the last day of the month in which it was completed, so November 30th using this example. The certificate of completion available for you to print immediately, however, will reflect the actual completion date, November 7th in this example. Due to ASHA processing procedures please allow 2-3 weeks, from the submission date, for the course to appear on your ASHA transcript.
Purchase orders are currently not accepted for online orders, if you wish to submit a purchase order please do so at firstname.lastname@example.org or fax to 888-696-9655.
What is an Online Course?
Our Online Courses consist of video, audio, and/or text content and are offered for ASHA CEUs. Unlike a webinar, which requires participants to be logged on and at a computer at specific times, our Online Courses are available to you at any time, from any device, via your NorthernSpeech.com online account. You may work at your own pace and start and stop your course as you wish. Your course will conclude with a short post test. On successful completion of the post test (>80%), a printable certificate of completion is presented to you.
Northern Speech is an ASHA CE Provider and our online courses are registered with ASHA and offered for ASHA CEUs. Please note that successful completion of the online post test is required prior to the awarding of CEUs. Please contact your state licensing board for acceptance policies related to CEUs earned online. Please note that courses offered for university students are not applicable for CEUs.
Registering for an online course:
You may browse all online courses by clicking the Continuing Education tab above, then Online Courses. Once you find a course, click Enroll Now, and you will be asked to either log into your existing Northern Speech account or create a new online account. Once you’ve entered your account information and provided your credit card payment, your course will be immediately available to you.
Accessing your purchased course or returning to a purchased course:
You will be able to access your online course by logging into your Northern Speech account and then clicking the My Online Courses tab on your profile screen. Click the course you would like to start or to resume. From there, proceed through the course sections until you are ready to complete the post test. You do not have to complete your course all at once. You may log on and off as you wish.
Each online course concludes with a post test consisting of multiple choice or true & false questions. Scores of 80% or greater are required for successful course completion and awarding of CEUs. You may revisit course materials and retest as needed to achieve a passing score.
Number of CEUs offered:
We offer courses from 1 to 21 contact hours. Each course will note the number of CEUs offered. Please note that 0.1 CEU = 1 contact hour = 1 CEE.
State licensing boards and online CEUs:
NSS is an ASHA CE Provider and most state licensing boards DO accept ASHA CEUs earned online (usually classified as home-study credits). Some boards do, however, place a limit to the number of CEUs that can be earned via home study/online courses. For the most current information, we suggest that you contact your licensing board or agency to verify acceptance policies and/or any CEU limits related to home-study courses prior to enrolling in an online course.
Our course formats include: text, audio, video, and PowerPoint with author narration. Each course will note the format on the course description page. Most courses include closed captioning.
Most of our online courses provide a link to download the accompanying handout as a PDF file.
Groups of 3 or more are eligible for a 20% discount on each registration on most of our online courses. To receive this discount, registrations need to be processed together via the "Group Rates" tab on the Online Course of your choice.
For our online courses to function best, we recommend that you update your computer to include the newest version of your Internet browser (Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Edge, Internet Explorer, etc.) and newest version of your computer's operating system. Also a high-speed Internet connection is recommended (cable or DSL). Speakers or headphones will be required for many of our courses as many contain audio components.
Course Cancellation Policy:
A purchased online course can be exchanged, refunded, or transferred to another individual if contact is made with NSS (via phone or email) within 30 days of purchase and the course materials have not been viewed or downloaded.
Please click here for any special needs requests, and we will do our best to accommodate them.
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